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Analysis of the Differences between Lithium Iron Phosphate Power Battery and Lithium Iron Phosphate Energy Storage Battery
146 2023-10-18
The main differences between lithium iron phosphate power batteries and lithium iron phosphate energy storage batteries are: different battery capacities, different application scenarios, differences in battery management system BMS, different types of battery cells used, and different performance and design.
Battery Definition
Lithium iron phosphate power battery mainly provides power, that is, electricity is converted into driving power, traction power, and so on through an electric motor. Transportation vehicles that use power batteries to provide power include electric cars, electric trains, electric trucks, electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and electric ships; The traction type includes indoor and outdoor tractors and forklifts used in schools, factories, sports fields, and other places; Other power sources that can be used for electric tools, such as drones and electric toys.
Lithium iron phosphate energy storage battery, used for storing electrical energy. Mainly used in power stations, communication base stations, household energy storage, portable power sources, etc. for solar and wind power generation equipment, as well as batteries for renewable energy storage.
Basic Differences
Energy density and power density: lithium iron phosphate power battery>lithium iron phosphate energy storage battery
Lithium iron phosphate power batteries focus more on charging and discharging power, requiring fast charging rate, high output power, and vibration resistance, especially emphasizing high safety and high energy density to achieve long-lasting endurance, as well as lightweight requirements in terms of weight and volume.
Lithium iron phosphate energy storage batteries emphasize battery capacity, especially operational stability and service life. More attention should be paid to the consistency of battery modules. In terms of battery materials, attention should be paid to expansion rate, energy density, electrode material performance uniformity, etc., in order to pursue the long life and low cost of the overall energy storage equipment.
Structural composition
The structural composition of lithium iron phosphate power batteries and lithium iron phosphate energy storage batteries is different: the positive electrode material of the former is lithium iron phosphate or lithium iron phosphate derivative, while the latter is lithium iron phosphate; The former is carbon black or high specific surface area carbon material, while the latter is graphite.
Service life
Lithium iron phosphate power batteries are less than lithium iron phosphate energy storage batteries. For power lithium batteries, energy storage lithium batteries have higher requirements for their service life. The lifespan of new energy vehicles is generally 8 years, while the lifespan of energy storage facilities is greater than 10 years.
Number of cycles
Lithium iron phosphate power batteries are less than lithium iron phosphate energy storage batteries. The cycle life of the power battery is around 2000 times. The cycle life requirement of energy storage lithium batteries is to be greater than 3500 cycles. If the charging and discharging frequency is increased, the cycle life requirement is usually to be more than 5000 cycles.
Comprehensive Appearance
Lithium iron phosphate power batteries are smaller and lighter in weight; Lithium iron phosphate energy storage batteries generally have a more square and heavy appearance.

Weight: Weight requirements
The weight of lithium iron phosphate power battery is less than that of lithium iron phosphate energy storage battery.
As the power consumption of new energy vehicles increases with the weight of the vehicle, the power battery requires a lighter weight. The requirements for energy storage batteries in energy storage power stations are all large-scale, with no requirement for the importance of batteries at levels of megawatts or even hundreds of megawatts. Due to the lack of significant limitations on energy storage lithium batteries, the production cost requirement is lower than that of power lithium batteries, and the safety requirement is also higher.
Height: Size
The volume of lithium iron phosphate power batteries is equivalent to dozens or twenty large carpets stacked together, while lithium iron phosphate energy storage batteries are generally composed of multiple battery modules forming a large module, which is then combined with many large modules. Energy storage batteries with a volume close to that of a container.
Battery capacity
Battery capacity: Lithium iron phosphate power battery < Lithium iron phosphate energy storage battery.
Electrical performance
Discharge current: Lithium iron phosphate power battery > Lithium iron phosphate energy storage battery
Resistance: Lithium iron phosphate power battery < Lithium iron phosphate energy storage battery
If lithium iron phosphate power batteries and lithium iron phosphate energy storage batteries use the same battery material, but the quality of the same material is slightly better, the internal resistance will be lower, and the energy storage battery will be slightly worse, and the internal resistance will be higher.
Application Requirements
When discharging lithium iron phosphate power batteries, the current changes greatly, and more attention is paid to charging and discharging power. It requires fast charging rate, high output power, and impact resistance, especially high safety and energy density, achieving long-lasting endurance, and lightweight requirements in terms of weight and volume. Energy storage batteries can be considered to have a relatively stable output, generally with a small discharge current and a long discharge time. From the perspective of battery materials, it is necessary to consider the lithium storage performance of positive and negative electrode materials, as well as the related performance of electrolytes and separators.
Lithium iron phosphate energy storage batteries generally require continuous charging or discharging for more than two hours, while also undertaking frequency modulation and peak shaving applications. Energy based batteries are more suitable. Of course, in this scenario, power based and capacity based batteries can also be used together.

Component Cost
The lithium iron phosphate power battery PACK is basically composed of the following five systems: battery module, battery management system, thermal management system, electrical system, and structural system. The cost of the power battery system consists of comprehensive costs such as battery cells, structural components, BMS, box, accessories, and manufacturing costs. The battery cells account for about 80% of the cost, while the Pack (including structural components, BMS, box, accessories, manufacturing costs, etc.) cost accounts for about 20% of the entire battery pack cost.
The lithium iron phosphate energy storage battery system is mainly composed of battery packs, battery management systems (BMS), energy management systems (EMS), energy storage converters (PCS), and other electrical equipment. In the cost composition of energy storage systems, batteries are the most important component, accounting for 60% of the cost; Secondly, energy storage inverters account for 20%, EMS (Energy Management System) accounts for 10%, BMS (Battery Management System) accounts for 5%, and others account for 5%.
Management System
The Battery Management System (BMS) for lithium iron phosphate batteries is an important component of the battery pack. The coordination and consistency of various functions and components of the battery pack depend on the BMS, and can directly affect the power output of the battery and the safety of the battery pack.
There is a difference in the battery management system BMS between lithium iron phosphate power batteries and lithium iron phosphate energy storage batteries, as power batteries are often used in new energy vehicles and are often in high-speed motion. They have more stringent requirements for the power response speed and power characteristics, SOC estimation accuracy, and state parameter calculation quantity of the battery, and related adjustment functions also need to be implemented through BMS.

Source: SMM Cobalt Lithium New Energy    Author:Chaoxing  Yang