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Lithium battery charging: Solve several common problems
350 2023-07-03
Lithium-ion batteries have become the preferred power source for many electronic devices due to their high energy density, light weight and long life. However, the charging process for these batteries is not without challenges. In this article, we will explore several common problems related to lithium battery charging and discuss solutions.

One of the most common problems faced during the charging of lithium batteries is overcharging. Overcharging occurs when a battery continues to receive charging current after reaching its maximum capacity. This can lead to thermal runaway, a phenomenon in which the temperature of a battery rises uncontrollably, potentially leading to a fire or explosion. To prevent overcharging, most lithium batteries are equipped with a charge control circuit that automatically cuts off the charge current after the battery is fully charged. It is vital to use chargers specifically designed for batteries and avoid counterfeit or incompatible chargers that may lack this important safety feature.

Another issue to be aware of is insufficient charging. Undercharge occurs when the battery is not charged to its full capacity, resulting in reduced battery performance and shortened battery life. This can happen if the charging process is interrupted too early or if the charger does not provide the correct charging voltage. To avoid undercharging, it is necessary to ensure that the charger used is compatible with the battery and provides the correct voltage and current levels.

In addition, during the charging process of lithium batteries, extreme temperatures can cause difficulties. If the battery is exposed to temperatures below 0°C or above 45°C, the internal chemistry of the battery is negatively affected, reducing its capacity and overall performance. Therefore, it is important to charge the lithium battery within the manufacturer‘s recommended temperature range and avoid exposing it to extreme heat or cold during the charging process.

There is also a phenomenon called "voltage suppression" in lithium batteries. Voltage drop, also known as the "memory effect," is a condition in which a battery appears smaller than its actual maximum capacity. This happens when the battery is repeatedly only partially charged or discharged, resulting in a reduction in the battery‘s "remember" capacity. In response to the voltage reduction, it is recommended to periodically perform a full discharge followed by a full charge to refresh the battery and restore its full capacity.
Proper storage of lithium batteries is also essential to ensure their longevity. If a lithium battery is stored for a long time without use, it may self-discharge, which may lead to irreversible chemical reactions. In order to mitigate self-discharge, the battery should be stored in a cool and dry place with a charging level between 40-60%. In addition, it is recommended to charge the stored batteries regularly to keep them healthy.
In conclusion, while lithium batteries offer many benefits, including their high energy density and long life, proper charging is essential for their safe and efficient operation. By addressing common issues such as overcharging, undercharging, extreme temperatures, voltage drops, and proper storage, users can ensure their lithium batteries perform at their best and enjoy a longer service life. Regularly referring to the manufacturer‘s guidelines and using compatible chargers are key steps to avoid these issues and maximize the benefits of lithium battery technology.